International Journal of Infertility & Fetal Medicine

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2018 | September-December | Volume 9 | Issue 3

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[Year:2018] [Month:September-December] [Volume:9] [Number:3] [Pages:1] [Pages No:0 - 0]

   DOI: 10.5005/ijifm-9-3-iv  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Original Article

Balaji Ommurugan, Vanishree Rao, Amod Tilak, Kurady L Bairy

Effect of Vitamin C and Atorvastatin on Male Fertility in Rats Subjected to Forced Swimming Stress

[Year:2018] [Month:September-December] [Volume:9] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:27 - 31]

Keywords: Antioxidants, Atorvastatin, Forced, Lipid peroxidation, Pleiotropy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10016-1171  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: An imbalance between the oxidative system and the antioxidant defense system leads to stress. So the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of vitamin C and atorvastatin on fertility in male rats subjected to experimental stress using the forced swimming stress model. Materials and methods: Thirty adult male albino rats weighing 200–250 g and aged 10–12 weeks were used. Institutional Animal Ethics Committee approval was obtained. Rats were exposed to forced swimming stress daily and drugs were orally administered 30 minutes prior to the stress for a total of 15 days once daily. Group I: the nonstress group with distilled water (negative control); group II: positive control (only stress) plus distilled water; group III: stress + vitamin C (20 mg/kg/day); group IV: stress + atorvastatin (2 mg/kg/day); group V: stress + vitamin C (20 mg/kg/day) + atorvastatin (2 mg/kg/day). On the 16th day, the effect of drugs in stressed rats on body weight, testicular and epididymis weight, testicular index, sperm count, and motility was assessed. Results: In stressed rats, sperm count, motility, testicular weight, epididymis weight, and testicular index were significantly reduced when compared with the control group. Groups III, IV, and V showed a significant increase (p < 0.001) in all five parameters when compared with the stress group. Conclusion: The results suggest that vitamin C and atorvastatin significantly protected the harmful effect of stress on sperms. Clinical significance: The pleiotropic antioxidant effect of statins is proven by this study and clinical trials can be done to evaluate the role of atorvastatin in treating male infertility.



Mir Jaffar, Syed Waseem Andrabi, SML Prakash Babu, SA Subramani

Impact of Weight Loss on Reproductive Hormones in Obese Men

[Year:2018] [Month:September-December] [Volume:9] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:32 - 36]

Keywords: Body mass index, Male infertility, Male reproductive hormones, Obesity, Weight loss

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10016-1172  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Objective: To determine whether weight loss in obese men improves reproductive hormones. Design: Prospective interventional study. Setting: Infertility clinic and weight loss centers. Patients: All obese men attending infertility center from April 2012 to May 2015 (n = 105). Intervention(s): Diet counseling and exercise. Materials and methods: Obese men aged 25–40 years (mean age = 32.5 ± 7.5) with BMI more than 25 kg/m2 were recruited for the study. The subjects underwent a weight loss intervention and were followed up for 1-year post intervention. Their semen parameters were checked before and after weight loss. Main outcome measures: Collected reproductive parameters included testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) serum hormonal values. A paired t test was done to evaluate differences across the before and after groups. Chi-square/Fisher exact test was used to find the significance of study parameters on a categorical scale between two or more groups. Results: The mean BMI was significantly higher before weight loss (33.2) than after weight loss (30.4) in obese men. The weight loss increased the T to 35.40 ± 20.51 ng/mL compared with 27.16 ± 20.71 ng/mL, and SHBG to 23.72 ± 9.01 µg/dL compared with 19.18 ± 10.44 µg/dL, whereas FSH and LH were nonsignificant. Conclusion: The study showed that a high BMI at the baseline was associated with low values of serum T and SHBG. FSH and LH were considerably low in morbidly obese men before weight loss. Weight loss was associated with an increase in serum T and SHBG. FSH and LH were not statistically significant after weight loss except in morbidly obese men who showed clear aromatization influence. The hormonal profile among obese men evaluated in this study was characterized by abnormalities in the sex hormones, and weight loss improved some of the hormone levels; however, they were not normalized.



Shubhadeep Bhattacharjee

Optimal Time Interval between Laparoscopic Tubal Ligation for Hydrosalpinges and ICSI-ET

[Year:2018] [Month:September-December] [Volume:9] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:37 - 40]

Keywords: Hydrosalpinx, Laparoscopy, ICSI

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10016-1173  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Objective: To determine the optimal time interval between performing laparoscopic tubal ligation for hydrosalpinges and an intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer (ICSI-ET) treatment cycle. Design: A retrospective cohort study. Setting: Private infertility clinic. Patients and methods: The study group included 69 infertile women who had laparoscopic tubal ligation for hydrosalpinges. Forty-one patients (group A) had an ICSI-ET cycle <10 weeks after laparoscopic tubal surgery, 20 patients (group B) had an ICSI-ET cycle 10 and 16 weeks after surgery, and 20 patients (group C) had an ICSI-ET cycle >16 weeks after surgery. Intervention: Laparoscopic tubal ligation and ICSI-ET. Main outcome measure(s): Pregnancy rate, clinical pregnancy rate, and implantation rate. Results: Pregnancy rates were 39%, 50%, and 50%, clinical pregnancy rates were 31.7%, 45%, and 50%, and implantation rates were 14.8%, 21.5%, and 18% for groups A, B, and C, respectively. Conclusion: Although the reduction in pregnancy rate, clinical pregnancy rate and implantation rate in group A, as compared with groups B and C, did not reach statistical significance, our results suggest that ICSI-ET treatment cycles be postponed for at least 10 weeks after laparoscopic tubal ligation for hydrosalpinx. A larger prospectively randomized study should be conducted to confirm the minimum delay period required for endometrial receptivity to recover.



Deepa Talreja, Hrishikesh Pai

Social Oocyte Freezing: A Boon for Aging Females

[Year:2018] [Month:September-December] [Volume:9] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:41 - 44]

Keywords: Fertility preservation, Oocyte cryopreservation, Vitrification

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10016-1169  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Reproductive aging plays a very important role in female fertility. The age-related decline in fertility can be attributed to a decrease in number as well as poor quality of oocytes. The trend to delay childbearing confronts women with difficulty in conception. Oocyte freezing at a younger age provides an option to freeze the eggs before the biological clocks start ticking. It allows women to freeze their eggs at the peak of fertility and create embryos at the later stage when they find a suitable partner or when they are ready to pursue the family. Introduction of new “vitrification” technique has made the success rates for actual conception more reliable than the earlier method of slow freezing. Due to improved results with the vitrification technique, and various studies reporting improved pregnancy rates, oocyte freezing is now no longer considered to be experimental. Oocyte freezing with egg banking has now wider application in fertility services.


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