International Journal of Infertility & Fetal Medicine

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2015 | September-December | Volume 6 | Issue 3

EDITORIAL

Editorial

[Year:2015] [Month:September-December] [Volume:6] [Number:3] [Pages:1] [Pages No:0 - 0]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/ijifm-6-3-v  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

REVIEW ARTICLE

Prasad Lele

Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor for Treatment of Thin Endometrium in Assisted Reproduction Technology Cycles

[Year:2015] [Month:September-December] [Volume:6] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:97 - 102]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10016-1109  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Kamath MS, Lele P. Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor for Treatment of Thin Endometrium in Assisted Reproduction Technology Cycles. Int J Infertil Fetal Med 2015;6(3):97-102.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Hichem Abdessalem MAÏ, Abbassia Demmouche

A Case-Control study of Body Mass Index and Infertility in Algerian Women (Sidi Bel Abbes, West of Algeria)

[Year:2015] [Month:September-December] [Volume:6] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:103 - 107]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10016-1110  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

The prevalence of obesity and female infertility in Algeria has increased in past decades, and recent study are showing a relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of female infertility, suggesting that obesity is a risk factor for infertility. In order to evaluate the risk of infertility associated with BMI, we conducted a case-control study.

Materials and methods

The relationship between BMI and female infertility was investigated in a case-control study of 256 infertile cases and 326 fertile control subjects. The BMI of infertile women was compared with the BMI of the control fertile group. Odds ratios (ORs) was calculated as measures of relative risk of infertility associated with BMI.

Results

Multiple analyses showed significant association between various measures of BMI and female infertility in this population. An association between BMI and infertility was observed for the overweight (25.00–29.99 kg/m2; odds ratio = 2.23; p = 0.021; 95% confidence interval, 1.52–3.25) and obese group (> 30 kg/m2; odds ratio = 3.26; p = 0.019; 95% confidence interval, 1.62–6.58) compared to the normal weight group. However, no association was found between underweight and infertility (BMI < 20 Kg/m2, odds ratio = 0.96; p = 0.063; 95% confidence interval, 0.57–1.63).

Conclusion

The present study confirms the results that the previously reported research have shown and affirm that an negative association exist between obesity and overweight with fertility, this association might be influenced by other factors, that's why larger and more research in the Algerian population are needed.

How to cite this article

MAÏ HA, Demmouche A. A Case-Control study of Body Mass Index and Infertility in Algerian Women (Sidi Bel Abbes, West of Algeria). Int J Infertil Fetal Med 2015;6(3):103-107.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Muralidhar V Pai, Caroline R Mathias

Association of Ultrasound Estimated Fetal Weight between 10th and 50th Centile in Third Trimester with the Risk of Spontaneous Preterm Delivery

[Year:2015] [Month:September-December] [Volume:6] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:108 - 111]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10016-1111  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective

To find out the association of ultrasound estimated fetal weight (UEFW) between 10th and 50th centile, in early third trimester and the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.

Materials and methods

Fetal weight of 965 women with singleton pregnancy was estimated between 28 and 34 weeks. Women with multiple gestation, medical disorders, fetal anomalies and induced labor were excluded. Values of UEFW were converted into centile values and multiples of median (MoM) for each gestational age. The risk of spontaneous preterm delivery was correlated with the UEFW.

Results

Out of 965 subjects 62 were either excluded as per exclusion criteria or lost for follow-up. Out of 91 subjects with fetal weights ≤10th centile 17 (18.7%, OR 1.82, p-value 0.003) and out of 180 with that ≤20th centile 29 (16.1% OR 1.51, p-value 0.040) had preterm delivery. When the deviation was below 0.85 MoM, 15 out of 73 (20.5% OR 2.08, p-value 0.024) subjects had preterm delivery.

Conclusion

When UEFW in early third trimester is below 20th centile or below 0.80 MoM the risk for spontaneous preterm delivery increases, hence, it may be prudent to be vigilant when the fetal weight is between 10th and 20th centile to avoid preterm delivery.

How to cite this article

Pai MV, Mathias CR. Association of Ultrasound Estimated Fetal Weight between 10th and 50th Centile in Third Trimester with the Risk of Spontaneous Preterm Delivery. Int J Infertil Fetal Med 2015;6(3):108-111.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Soma Ghoshal, Nisha Rani Agrawal, Kiran Singh

Expression Profiling of TGF-β Receptor and its Relation with Endometriosis

[Year:2015] [Month:September-December] [Volume:6] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:112 - 117]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10016-1112  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Study objectives

To measure the transforming growth factorbeta (TGF-β) receptor level in endometriotic tissues in patients selected for surgery in our hospital; and thus to assess its genetic basis in the pathophysiology of endometriosis; and to study its possibility as a potent tissue marker.

Design

Observational study (case control study) involving Genetic Laboratory Study.

Setting

Tertiary Care Institute, Gynecology Department.

Population or sample

Total 100 female patients undergoing surgery in our hospital involved; out of them 50 were cases and 50 controls.

Materials and methods

Fifty cases (having endometriosis) and 50 controls (without endometriosis) were taken. During surgery, excised specimen was examined for presence of any endometriotic tissue. The endometrial tissue samples from suspected area were taken and put immediately in RNA-PCR media and sent to Genetics Laboratory where semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of TGF-beta was done using primers designed by Primer Blast software (National Center for Biotechnology Information).

Main outcome measures

The mean TGF-β receptor level was 0.5886 in cases and the mean TGF-β receptor level in controls was 2.076. Both in extrauterine endometriosis and in adenomyosis, TGF-β receptor was downregulated equally in 80% of cases.

Results

Transforming growth factor-beta receptor levels in all types of endometriosis showed a significant down regulation in maximum number of cases.

Conclusion

This downregulation of TGF-β receptor level in the endometriotic tissues not only helps in understanding the pathological basis of endometriosis but most importantly, it can be utilized as genetic basis of therapy in endometriosis in near future.

How to cite this article

Ghoshal S, Agrawal NR, Singh K. Expression Profiling of TGF-β Receptor and its Relation with Endometriosis. Int J Infertil Fetal Med 2015;6(3):112-117.

Consent

Taken from all the 100 patients involved.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Asifa Majeed, PS Divyashree

Clinical Outcomes of Tamoxifen and Clomiphene Citrate in Intrauterine Insemination Cycles

[Year:2015] [Month:September-December] [Volume:6] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:118 - 121]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10016-1113  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background

Both selective estrogen receptor modulators, tamoxifen and clomiphene have been used for ovulation induction for patients with anovulatory infertility. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of tamoxifen to clomiphene on clinical outcome in intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles.

Materials and methods

It is a retrospective clinical study. Two hundred and seven women undergoing IUI cycles from July 2013 to July 2014 at Milann—The fertility centre, Bengaluru, India were analyzed. Tamoxifen was administered in the dose of 40 mg starting from day 2/3 of the menstrual cycle for a period of 5 days and clomiphene citrate (CC) was administered in the dose of 100 mg from day 2/3 of menstrual cycle for 5 days. Monitoring of ovulation was done by transvaginal ultrasound from day 5/6 till dominant follicle size was more than 18 mm. Highly purified human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) in the dose of 5000 IU was given. Double insemination was done at 24 and 36 hours. Luteal phase support was given in form of dydrogesterone 10 mg twice a day for 14 days. Serum beta-hCG was done after 14 days.

Result

In our study, 76 patients recieved clomiphene citrate (37%) and 126 patients received tamoxifen (62.9%). Both the groups were comparable in terms of age, period of infertility, FSH, LH, antral follicle count and their human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) requirement (Table 1). Thirteen patients (23.6%) in CC group and 42 patients (76.4%) in tamoxifen group had positive serum beta hCG result. p-value was found to be significant (p = 0.016) (Table 2).

Conclusion

Tamoxifen was associated with better endometrial thickness and pregnancy rate when compared to clomiphene citrate in ovarian stimulation in IUI cycles.

How to cite this article

Majeed A, Divyashree PS, Rao KA. Clinical Outcomes of Tamoxifen and Clomiphene Citrate in Intrauterine Insemination Cycles. Int J Infertil Fetal Med 2015;6(3):118-121.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

K Muthukumar, TK Aleyamma, PR Preetha

Influence of Sperm Morphology on the Outcome of Assisted Reproductive Technique—Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles: A Retrospective Analysis

[Year:2015] [Month:September-December] [Volume:6] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:122 - 127]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10016-1114  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of spermatozoa morphology on ICSI cycle outcome parameters in couples with male factor infertility.

Design

Retrospective study.

Setting

University-level tertiary care center.

Patients and methods

One hundred and forty-eight couples with male factor infertility who had undergone intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle from 2010 to December 2012 were included in this analysis. The semen samples of the male partners were classified according to the three predictive categories of the Tygerberg strict criteria: excellent prognosis (> 14% morphologically normal spermatozoa), good prognosis (5–14%) and poor prognosis (< 5%).

Main outcome measures

The primary outcome was the embryo quality rate.

Results

Patients in the poor prognosis subgroups exhibited deficits in spermatozoa concentration, motility and total motile fraction. The variations in the outcome parameters of fertilization rate, embryo development rate and embryo quality did not correlate with sperm morphology.

Conclusion

Our study suggests that Kruger's strict morphology criteria of the fresh semen sample is not a good predictor for the ICSI cycle outcome.

How to cite this article

Preetha RP, Kamath MS, Aleyamma TK, Muthukumar K. Influence of Sperm Morphology on the Outcome of Assisted Reproductive Technique-Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles: A Retrospective Analysis. Int J Infertil Fetal Med 2015;6(3):122-127.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Shripad Hebbar, Lavanya Rai, Leslie Lewis, Prashanth Adiga, Shyamala Guruvare, Barnali Basu

Relationship of Time Interval between Antenatal Corticosteroid Administrations to Delivery with Respiratory Distress in Preterm Newborns

[Year:2015] [Month:September-December] [Volume:6] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:128 - 132]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10016-1115  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objectives

To assess the relationship of time interval between antenatal corticosteroid administration and delivery with respiratory distress in premature newborns.

Settings

Tertiary level teaching hospital

Population

Preterm deliveries between 28 and 34 weeks in the period of April 2011 to January 2013 where the mothers received one course of corticosteroid prophylaxis and fulfilled the selection criteria.

Materials and methods

Perusal of the hospital records was made to gather antenatal information and the details of delivery and the newborn. The patients were divided based on the number of doses of steroids received into three groups. The patients receiving complete steroid prophylaxis was further divided based on the time interval between steroid administration and delivery into five groups: 0 to 7 days, 8 to 14, 15 to 21, 22 to 28, 29 days and beyond. We looked for association between neonatal respiratory outcomes and steroid-delivery intervals using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 (SPSS, Chicago, USA). Regression model was used to control for the confounding variables.

Results

There were 284 women who delivered preterm (up to 34 weeks of gestation) between April 2011 and January 2013 and fulfilled the selection criteria. The babies who received one (48) or no dose of steroids (14) had a higher incidence of respiratory distress than the ones who received a complete dose. This was statistically significant for babies born up to 32 weeks.

Among the rest 222 babies who received complete steroid prophylaxis, 138 (62%) of the neonates born were admitted in NICU, respiratory distress was seen in 62 (28%). Eleven (5%) of the babies required intubation and 22 (9%) required surfactant therapy; there were 12 (5%) neonatal deaths. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed a slightly increased risk of respiratory morbidity with increased interval from administration to delivery (OR–0.87 for 8–14 days, 1.79 for 15–21 days and 0.16 for 22–28 days).

Conclusion

The risk of respiratory distress in preterm newborns increases beyond 2 weeks interval between antenatal corticosteroid administration and delivery.

How to cite this article

Guruvare S, Basu B, Rai L, Lewis L, Hebbar S, Adiga P. Relationship of Time Interval between Antenatal Corticosteroid Administrations to Delivery with Respiratory Distress in Preterm Newborns. Int J Infertil Fetal Med 2015;6(3): 128-132.

CASE REPORT

Lakshmidevi Muralidhar, Pramila Pandey

Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Dermoid Cyst

[Year:2015] [Month:September-December] [Volume:6] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:133 - 135]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10016-1116  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Muralidhar L, Venkatesh S, Pandey P. Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Dermoid Cyst. Int J Infertil Fetal Med 2015;6(3):133-135.

CASE REPORT

Nupur Garg, Deepika Krishna, Suvarna Rathor

Ovarian Torsion: A Gynecological Emergency

[Year:2015] [Month:September-December] [Volume:6] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:136 - 140]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10016-1117  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Garg N, Krishna D, Rathor S, Rao K. Ovarian Torsion: A Gynecological Emergency. Int J Infertil Fetal Med 2015;6(3):136-140.

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