International Journal of Infertility & Fetal Medicine

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2021 | May-August | Volume 12 | Issue 2

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Harpreet Kaur


[Year:2021] [Month:May-August] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:1] [Pages No:00 - 00]

   DOI: 10.5005/ijifm-12-2-iv  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Original Article

Zahra Marashi, Nasser Behroozi, Mohammad H Haghighi-Zadeh, Roshan Nikbakht, Zahra Abbaspoor

Effectiveness of Cognitive-behavioral Therapy on Psychological Well-being in Infertile Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

[Year:2021] [Month:May-August] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:25 - 30]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10016-1220  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Psychological well-being is a psychological variable that affects infertile women. This study aimed to explore the effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on the psychological well-being of infertile women. Materials and methods: Sixty-eight women with infertility randomly allocated into two groups: CBT (n = 34) and control (n = 34) groups. The women in the CBT program were divided into two subgroups of 12 and one group of 10, with each receiving eight therapy sessions (each session lasting 90 minutes). Psychological well-being was measured using a demographic questionnaire and the short-form Ryff Psychological well-being scale. The independent and paired t-tests, Chi-square, repeated measures, and ANCOVA tests were used to analyze the data. Results: Two women from the CBT and three from the control groups withdrew from the study. In the CBT group, the general psychological well-being score and self-acceptance, positive relationship, autonomy, purpose in life, personal growth, and environmental mastery dimensions’ scores were improved after the intervention. The scores also were significantly higher in the case group than those in the control group (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Cognitive-behavioral therapy can improve all aspects of psychological well-being, including self-acceptance, positive relationships, autonomy, purpose in life, personal growth, and environmental mastery in infertile women. Trial registration number: IRCT20190311043019N1.


Original Article

Gayathri Kalidoss, Supriya Velraja, Palaniappan Narayanan

Development and Formulation of Phytoestrogen-rich Supplement for Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

[Year:2021] [Month:May-August] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:31 - 36]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10016-1221  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder with various health complications like menstrual irregularities, hirsutism, acne, obesity, and insulin resistance. It is becoming a prominent cause of infertility among women worldwide. A woman's diet may ultimately affect her fertility, particularly ovulation. The assisted reproductive technologies for the treatment of infertility may cost high and have an adverse effect. To reduce the adverse effects, the novel dietary supplements are the new alternative approach to treat PCOS. Novel dietary supplements enriched with phytoestrogen help in alleviating the symptoms of PCOS such as improvement in ovulation, reduced blood glucose level, reduced stress level, and decreased weight. The present study was aimed to develop novel dietary supplements for women with PCOS. Aim and objective: To develop novel dietary supplements for women with PCOS by using underutilized ingredients. Materials and methods: Three different types of novel dietary supplements (supplement 1, supplement 2, and supplement 3) were developed under proper hygienic conditions. The organoleptic properties of the developed supplements were evaluated by the group of panel members. Followed by organoleptic evaluation, nutrient compositions were analyzed for the finalized supplement (supplement 3). Results: The nutrient composition of the finalized supplement was analyzed by using the standard procedure of AOAC (2016) and it is reported that the supplement is enriched with omega-3-fatty acid, polyphenols, flavonoids, selenium, iron, vitamin-A, and fiber. One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the significance between the formulated supplements and reported that the formulated supplements were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The study signifies that novel dietary supplements rich in phytoestrogens like polyphenols and flavonoids can be used for the treatment of PCOS. Clinical significance: Intake of developed supplement could result in regulation of menstruation and improvement in ovulation.



Rupali Khurana, Vyshnavi Rao, Kamini Rao

“One Size does not Fit All” during Ovarian Stimulation for IVF

[Year:2021] [Month:May-August] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:37 - 39]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10016-1219  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Ovarian stimulation (OS) is the heart of IVF. Various OS protocols are developed and many of them are still being explored to provide an individualized approach, making the care more patient-centric. Premature LH surge is one of the potential side effects accompanying the OS, and to prevent this phenomenon either GnRH analogs or progesterone are being used. The following case report is of a PCOS patient undergoing COS using progesterone-primed ovarian stimulation (PPOS) which was modified by adding GnRH antagonist in the middle of stimulation due to accelerated growth of a single follicle in one ovary. The premature luteinization was prevented and the stimulation cycle was salvaged, giving a good outcome in terms of mature oocyte, grade of embryos, and pregnancy. This case report emphasizes the importance of strict monitoring as well as an individualization of each stimulation cycle to case to case basis for achieving the best outcome.



Tanya T Kitova, Borislav D Kitov

Otocephaly: Agnathia-Microstomia-Synotia Syndrome

[Year:2021] [Month:May-August] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:40 - 43]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10016-1195  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The aim of the study is to present otocephaly, which is a rare congenital lethal malformation. Until this moment, only a little bit more than 100 cases worldwide were reported, and only 22 cases of prediagnosed otocephaly. Background: Otocephaly or agnathia-microstomia-synotia syndrome (SAMS) is characterized by agenesis of mandible (agnathia), disposition or fusion of the auricle (synotia), microstomia, and complete or partial lack of language (aglossia), which often ends up lethal. Case description: A 499.7 g male fetus was obtained after a therapeutic abortion during the 23rd gestational week at the Center for Maternity and Neonatology, Embryo-fetopathology Clinic, Tunis, Tunisia. The mother is an 18-year-old with close relative marriage with first-degree incest, primigravida. Examination of the fetus revealed microcephaly with craniosynostosis, hypertelorism, closed eyelid exophthalmos, one nostril, point microstomia, mandibular agenesis, bilateral, and auditory cysts of neck. The ears are located at the level of the neck. A study of the brain and the base of the skull revealed holoprosencephaly and sphenoid bone agenesis. There are no internal organ abnormalities. Conclusion: In cases where, at the end of the second trimester of pregnancy, polyhydramnios is detected, inability to visualize the mandible, and malposition of ears, otocephaly should be suspected. In these cases, the decision to interrupt pregnancy should be taken by a multidisciplinary team, after an magnetic resonance imaging, which is much better in visualizing location of the ears and other facial malformations and the presence of other associated anomalies. Clinical significance: Otocephaly (SAMS) is usually incompatible with life, which is why it is important to perform prenatal diagnosis in order to make prognosis for pregnancy.



Rekha Govindhasamy, Paramesh Govindhasamy, Rajitha Vanga, Pushpa Burute

Role of TP53 Gene Polymorphism in Male Infertility

[Year:2021] [Month:May-August] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:44 - 48]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10016-1218  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: The TP53 gene is located on chromosome 17p13.1.P53 gene considered as the guardian of the genome belongs to a three-membered gene family p53, p63, and p73.1 p53 plays a vital role in human cancer and whose mutation was observed in nearly 50% of cancer all around the world. In the present study, genotype distribution was assessed in 147 infertile males, fertile males, and the associations of TP53 Arg72Pro polymorphism with hormonal and seminal parameters were investigated. Materials and methods: A total of 147 infertility men and 150 fertile men were taken for the study. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to amplify the exon 4 of the human p53 CODON 72 genotyping was performed by restriction fragments length polymorphism (RFLP). Results: In summary, the AA genotype and the A allele are significantly associated with azoospermic men when compared to fertile men. Conclusion: The study found preliminary evidence demonstrated that the TP53 gene Arg72 Pro polymorphism contributes significant association to male infertility. Aim and objective: To analyze the association of p53 gene polymorphism in male infertility cases in the study population.


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