International Journal of Infertility & Fetal Medicine

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VOLUME 2 , ISSUE 1 ( January-April, 2011 ) > List of Articles


Implantation Failure, Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatment

Yoel Shufaro, Joseph G Schenker

Citation Information : Shufaro Y, Schenker JG. Implantation Failure, Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatment. Int J Infertil Fetal Med 2011; 2 (1):1-7.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10016-1009

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-08-2013

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2011; The Author(s).


Embryonic implantation is a complex interaction between the embryo and the endometrium. Despite great investigative effort this process is still obscure. Contrary to the great advancement in patient care, follicular recruitment, oocyte quality and aspiration, embryo quality, culture and cryopreservation, our understanding of the implantation process did not enhance as much, and the tools to intervene within this process are limited. The implantation of the transferred embryos still remains the major limiting factor in IVF. Here we will review the current literature on the maternal (uterine, hematologic, immunologic and others) and embryonic factors that are associated with repeated implantation failure (RIF) and describe the various therapeutic approaches to cope with them. In addition, we will present our conclusive recommendations on how to investigate and manage RIF based on the literature and our own experience.

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