International Journal of Infertility & Fetal Medicine

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VOLUME 4 , ISSUE 1 ( January-April, 2013 ) > List of Articles


A Case Control Study Comparing Risk Factors for Ectopic Gestation in Unusual and Tubal Gestations

Lakshmi Rathna Marakani, Sirisha Rao Gundabattula, Shashikala Dasari, Manjula Pochiraju, Kameswari Surampudi

Citation Information : Marakani LR, Gundabattula SR, Dasari S, Pochiraju M, Surampudi K. A Case Control Study Comparing Risk Factors for Ectopic Gestation in Unusual and Tubal Gestations. Int J Infertil Fetal Med 2013; 4 (1):14-17.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10016-1054

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-12-2015

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2013; The Author(s).



To compare risk factors for extratubal gestations with tubal gestations.

Materials and methods

Case control design with retrospective examination of an electronic database to identify ectopic gestations. Ectopic gestations were confirmed through ultrasound examination or serum beta hCG levels. We defined an ectopic gestation as implantation of pregnancy outside uterine cavity; tubal ectopic including implantation in the tube, isthmic, ampullary, or fimbrial and extratubal ectopic including implantation in the ovaries, cervix, abdomen, interstitia or cesarean scar.


Ninety-one (1.1%, 95% CI: 0.9-1.3, 1 in 90 pregnancies) of 8,203 pregnancies during the study period were ectopic gestations including 69 (0.8%, 95% CI: 0.7-1.1, 1 in 120 pregnancies) tubal gestations and 22 (0.3%, 95% CI: 0.2-0.4, 1 in 372 pregnancies) gestations in extratubal locations. Extratubal ectopic gestations were more common in women with advanced maternal age (odds ratio: 7.4, 95% CI: 1.3, 43.9, p = 0.03) compared to women with tubal ectopic gestations.


Risk factors for extratubal gestation did not differ from risk factors for tubal gestations except for advanced maternal age. Pregnant women with advanced maternal age have to be additionally counseled on the increased risk for extratubal gestations.

How to cite this article

Pochiraju M, Surampudi K, Marakani LR, Dasari S, Gundabattula SR. A Case Control Study Comparing Risk Factors for Ectopic Gestation in Unusual and Tubal Gestations. Int J Infertility Fetal Med 2013;4(1):14-17.

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