Aim: To provide information regarding contributing genetic factors and emphasize the importance of genetic counseling in reproductive issues. Background: Genetic counseling is a communication process, where a trained genetic counselor helps educate the client about the genetic background and comprehend the options available to deal with the risks and guides them to choose an appropriate line of action that is relevant in their perspective. A client could be indicated for genetic counseling for reproductive issues such as recurrent spontaneous abortions or infertility (primary and secondary infertility or subfertility). There are various etiological factors responsible for these issues, regarding the pregnancy itself or the environment, but genetic factors are a major cause and account for approximately 5% of pregnancy loss. Conclusion: There is poor awareness and knowledge with regard to the role that genetics plays in reproductive issues, which could cause miscarriages, recurrent abortions, or fertility issues. Obviously, there is a requirement for generalized education of communities and targeted interventions at the primary level itself, but in the clinical setting, it is the responsibility of the genetic counselor to counsel in a nondirective and nonbiased way so that the client has authority to make a decision in complete autonomy. Clinical significance: Out of all the clinically recognized pregnancies, 10–15%, globally, end in a miscarriage and the recurrence risk increases with each consecutive pregnancy loss. Chromosomal abnormalities account for around 50–66% of all miscarriages. Infertility is also a major problem in India and it affects 10–14% of Indian population. In order to clearly understand the causes of reproductive issues in the Indian context, all the above factors need to be further investigated.
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