Testis and ovary serve an important role of producing male and female gametes. Their normal functioning is very important for the proper formation of sperm and ovum and thus has a critical role in the successful fertility outcome. Synchronized activity of various cells in the gonads is needed to provide favorable niche for the growth and development of the germ cells. Among various ways of cellular communication, intercellular communication is mediated by gap junctions, which provides open but selective exchange of ion and molecules of restricted size between two adjoining cells. The basic unit of gap junction is connexins. Their important role has been speculated in the maintenance of homeostasis, morphogenesis, cell differentiation, and growth control in higher organisms. The expression of gap junction proteins in reproductive tissues has drawn the attention and interest of researcher to investigate their role in the reproductive outcome. The reports about the correlation of gap junction protein expression pattern in infertility patients and in animal models have suggested their implication in fertility. Some of these gap junction proteins seem to have redundant functions, whereas some could be very critical in the normal fertility and could not be dispensable for the successful outcome of the reproduction.
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